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Table of contents

An employment tribunal has recently found of favour of a claimant who brought a claim against Monarch for its failure to comply with its employment law obligations to consult with employees before making a mass … Continue Reading Introduction On 9 May the Airline Insolvency Review the AIR , chaired by Peter Bucks, published its Final Report on passenger protections in the context of airline insolvencies, having been commissioned by the Chancellor of the Exchequer in November following the high-profile collapse of Monarch Airlines.

Eme: B O O K O N E T H E P R O T O C O L

Hildyard J found that where the appropriate comparator to the scheme … Continue Reading. Former world number one and three-time Wimbledon champion Boris Becker, who was declared bankrupt by an order dated 21 June , is claiming diplomatic immunity against ongoing bankruptcy proceedings in the High Court. As retailers and restaurateurs across the UK continue to show signs of financial distress, interest in the use of … Continue Reading You could be forgiven for thinking that the Bills of Sale Acts of and would have been repealed by now, or could never apply to you, over years after they were drafted.

A key change introduced by the Rules is a new approach to decision making, including a deemed consent procedure. The new approach is designed to ease the administrative and cost burden in insolvency proceedings, and is summarised here: Insolvency Rules … Continue Reading After much consultation and debate, the Ministry of Justice has published the final version of the Pre-Action Protocol for Debt Claims the Protocol , which is due to come into force on 1 October The Protocol is available on the Ministry of Justice website.

Following the general trend of civil procedure in the UK, the … Continue Reading. Mr Justice Coulson heard the matter whilst acknowledging that, by the time judgment was handed down, the interim moratorium which had arisen following the filing of a notice of … Continue Reading Starting on October 1st , the French law on receivable acquisition has changed to become simpler. Now a mere notification will achieve the same result. High-traffic websites often benefit from web cache servers that deliver content on behalf of upstream servers to improve response time.

Web browsers cache previously accessed web resources and reuse them, when possible, to reduce network traffic. HTTP proxy servers at private network boundaries can facilitate communication for clients without a globally routable address, by relaying messages with external servers. HTTP is an application layer protocol designed within the framework of the Internet protocol suite. Its definition presumes an underlying and reliable transport layer protocol, [7] and Transmission Control Protocol TCP is commonly used. For example, including all optional components:. The term hypertext was coined by Ted Nelson in in the Xanadu Project , which was in turn inspired by Vannevar Bush 's s vision of the microfilm-based information retrieval and management " memex " system described in his essay " As We May Think ".


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The first version of the protocol had only one method, namely GET, which would request a page from a server. Dave Raggett led the HTTP Working Group HTTP WG in and wanted to expand the protocol with extended operations, extended negotiation, richer meta-information, tied with a security protocol which became more efficient by adding additional methods and header fields. An HTTP session is a sequence of network request-response transactions.

An HTTP server listening on that port waits for a client's request message. The body of this message is typically the requested resource, although an error message or other information may also be returned. Such persistent connections reduce request latency perceptibly, because the client does not need to re-negotiate the TCP 3-Way-Handshake connection after the first request has been sent. Another positive side effect is that, in general, the connection becomes faster with time due to TCP's slow-start -mechanism.

Version 1. HTTP pipelining further reduces lag time, allowing clients to send multiple requests before waiting for each response. Another addition to the protocol was byte serving , where a server transmits just the portion of a resource explicitly requested by a client. HTTP is a stateless protocol.

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A stateless protocol does not require the HTTP server to retain information or status about each user for the duration of multiple requests. However, some web applications implement states or server side sessions using for instance HTTP cookies or hidden variables within web forms. HTTP provides multiple authentication schemes such as basic access authentication and digest access authentication which operate via a challenge-response mechanism whereby the server identifies and issues a challenge before serving the requested content.

HTTP provides a general framework for access control and authentication, via an extensible set of challenge-response authentication schemes, which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a client to provide authentication information. The HTTP Authentication specification also provides an arbitrary, implementation-specific construct for further dividing resources common to a given root URI.

The realm value string, if present, is combined with the canonical root URI to form the protection space component of the challenge. This in effect allows the server to define separate authentication scopes under one root URI. What this resource represents, whether pre-existing data or data that is generated dynamically, depends on the implementation of the server.

Often, the resource corresponds to a file or the output of an executable residing on the server. By being specified in these documents, their semantics are well-known and can be depended on. Any client can use any method and the server can be configured to support any combination of methods.

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If a method is unknown to an intermediate, it will be treated as an unsafe and non-idempotent method. There is no limit to the number of methods that can be defined and this allows for future methods to be specified without breaking existing infrastructure. Method names are case sensitive.

In other words, they should not have side effects , beyond relatively harmless effects such as logging , web caching, the serving of banner advertisements or incrementing a web counter.

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Making arbitrary GET requests without regard to the context of the application's state should therefore be considered safe. However, this is not mandated by the standard, and it is explicitly acknowledged that it cannot be guaranteed. Such methods are therefore not usually used by conforming web robots or web crawlers; some that do not conform tend to make requests without regard to context or consequences.

Despite the prescribed safety of GET requests, in practice their handling by the server is not technically limited in any way.

What is Protocol? Name The famous protocol

Therefore, careless or deliberate programming can cause non-trivial changes on the server. This is discouraged, because it can cause problems for web caching , search engines and other automated agents, which can make unintended changes on the server. One example of this occurring in practice was during the short-lived Google Web Accelerator beta , which prefetched arbitrary URLs on the page a user was viewing, causing records to be automatically altered or deleted en masse. The beta was suspended only weeks after its first release, following widespread criticism.

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Methods PUT and DELETE are defined to be idempotent , meaning that multiple identical requests should have the same effect as a single request note that idempotence refers to the state of the system after the request has completed, so while the action the server takes e. In contrast, the POST method is not necessarily idempotent, and therefore sending an identical POST request multiple times may further affect state or cause further side effects such as financial transactions.

In some cases this may be desirable, but in other cases this could be due to an accident, such as when a user does not realize that their action will result in sending another request, or they did not receive adequate feedback that their first request was successful. While web browsers may show alert dialog boxes to warn users in some cases where reloading a page may re-submit a POST request, it is generally up to the web application to handle cases where a POST request should not be submitted more than once.

Note that whether a method is idempotent is not enforced by the protocol or web server. It is perfectly possible to write a web application in which for example a database insert or other non-idempotent action is triggered by a GET or other request. Ignoring this recommendation, however, may result in undesirable consequences, if a user agent assumes that repeating the same request is safe when it is not.

The TRACE method can be used as part of a class of attacks known as cross-site tracing ; for that reason, common security advice is for it to be disabled in the server configuration. The way the user agent handles the response depends primarily on the code, and secondarily on the other response header fields. Custom status codes can be used, for if the user agent encounters a code it does not recognize, it can use the first digit of the code to determine the general class of the response. The standard reason phrases are only recommendations, and can be replaced with "local equivalents" at the web developer 's discretion.

If the status code indicated a problem, the user agent might display the reason phrase to the user to provide further information about the nature of the problem. The standard also allows the user agent to attempt to interpret the reason phrase , though this might be unwise since the standard explicitly specifies that status codes are machine-readable and reason phrases are human-readable.

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HTTP status code is primarily divided into five groups for better explanation of request and responses between client and server as named:. Browser support for these two is, however, nearly non-existent.


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A client request consisting in this case of the request line and only one header field is followed by a blank line, so that the request ends with a double newline, each in the form of a carriage return followed by a line feed. The "Host" field distinguishes between various DNS names sharing a single IP address , allowing name-based virtual hosting. The ETag entity tag header field is used to determine if a cached version of the requested resource is identical to the current version of the resource on the server.